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Chapter One - Part Three - Money-Medium of Exchange or Mammon?
Abraham Yim  2018-09-03 09:53:53, 조회 : 217, 추천 : 73

Abraham Yim
September 5th, 2018 - Wednesday
O. S. Guinness - Doing Well and Doing Good
Chapter One - Part Three - Money-Medium of Exchange or Mammon?

        Hello, everyone. Today we are going into Chapter One - Part Three - Money - Medium of Exchange or Mammon? If you can properly recall, we went over the Greek view last week. Our person of interest in the Greek perspective was Plato. We explored a text that appropriately encompassed the ideology that is the Greek perspective on money. If you remember, there are two other perspectives in this quest in understanding money. Today we will be going over the Roman perspective and the Judeo-Christian perspective, respectively.

        If you remember, we described the Roman view on money as the right to use, enjoy, and abuse one’s own property - this includes land, animal, slaves, family, etc. To emphasize this point, we will be observing Marcus Tullius Cicero. Cicero was a Roman statesman, who was so influential that he was given the title of Pater patriae, which means “Father of his country.” Cicero was known to be a master orator. Similar to Plato, Cicero was born into a wealthy family; he joined the Roman army at the age of sixteen, and after his military campaign, he entered the political sphere in the Roman Senate. Cicero was soon elected consul, and he impacted Roman culture and lifestyle in an indescribable fashion.

        Marcus Tullius Cicero left many excerpts, notes, and philosophical pieces behind, but one piece of literature that stands as his magnum opus is De Officiis, which means “Duty.” Cicero’s De Officiis is in stark contrast with Plato’s Politeia. Cicero emphasizes “the absolute ownership rights for landowners and no taxes except in cases of national emergency.” In De Officiis, Cicero preaches the idea of private citizens suffer no invasion of their property rights by acts of state. A statesman in Cicero’s book, Philippus, proposes an agrarian bill. Phillipus’s bill was swiftly denied by the Roman tribunal, but he continued to preach for the distribution of wealth. However, Cicero says, “For the chief purpose in the establishment of constitutional state and municipal governments was that individual property rights might be secured. For although it was by Nature’s guidance that men were drawn together into communities, it was in the hope of safeguarding their possessions that they sought the protection of cities...” Cicero strongly disagrees with Phillipus, and he believes that landowners have the sovereign right over their own property. He goes as far as to believe that the harmony of any society is the protection of the commonwealth. If the rights of the property were not respected than any sense of equity would be shattered.

        If you realized, the Roman perspective and the Greek perspective sit on either side of the spectrum. The Romans believe that money and private-property ought to be sovereignly ruled by the owner; the Greeks believe that money and private-property should be carefully regulated and distributed by the government. We now go into the Judeo-Christian perspective that sees money and private-property with a stewardly attitude.

        Once again, we look into a key writer in understanding the Judeo-Christian perspective. However, O. S. Guinness provides us four verses to aid us in understanding the idea Judeo-Christian perspective:
Leviticus 25:23(NIV)- 23 “‘The land must not be sold permanently, because the land is mine and you reside in my land as foreigners and strangers.
Deuteronomy 23:24-25(NIV)- 24 If you enter your neighbor’s vineyard, you may eat all the grapes you want, but do not put any in your basket. 25 If you enter your neighbor’s grainfield, you may pick kernels with your hands, but you must not put a sickle to their standing grain.
Psalm 50:9-12(NIV)- 9 I have no need of a bull from your stall  or of goats from your pens, 10 for every animal of the forest is mine, and the cattle on a thousand hills. 11 I know every bird in the mountains, and the insects in the fields are mine. 12 If I were hungry I would not tell you,  for the world is mine, and all that is in it.
1 Chronicles 29:11-14(NIV)-11 Yours, Lord, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the majesty and the splendor, for everything in heaven and earth is yours. Yours, Lord, is the kingdom; you are exalted as head over all. 12 Wealth and honor come from you; you are the ruler of all things. In your hands are strength and power  to exalt and give strength to all. 13 Now, our God, we give you thanks, and praise your glorious name. 14 “But who am I, and who are my people, that we should be able to give as generously as this? Everything comes from you, and we have given you only what comes from your hand.
        Now we can go into Saint John Chrysostom. John was a bishop, and he was appointed the Patriarch of Constantinople against his will. He was known for giving some of the best sermons, and he was called Chrysostom, which means, “golden-tongued.” John was known for being a great preacher, and he often took on lessons that the government saw as unsavory. In one of his sermons, “he preached zealously for moral reform and against the abuse of riches.” The empress saw this as an act against her and other affluent people, and they charged John with false claims. He later died in exile. However, John Chrysostom left important works for us to understand the Judeo-Christian perspective.
        Saint John Chrysostom was characterized by his strong opposition against the abuse of power. The parable of the faithful servant, in Matthew 24:45-47, is applied to money, “... speech, power, gifts, and every stewardship wherewith each is entrusted.” Everyone should make use of the gifts that are given to them. John emphasizes the fact that we should use our powers and gifts for the welfare of the commonwealth. John says, “Let us who have money listen to these things as well. For Christ speaks not only to teachers but also to the rich. For both have been entrusted with riches: the teachers with the more necessary wealth, the rich with the inferior one.” He makes a point saying that having the knowledge of the Scriptures is more important than gold; however, if we are willing to spread the Scripture, which is worth more than gold, than why aren’t we willing to spread gold? John is speaking of charity, but many have taken his speech to mean we should all have a part of the riches - something similar to Plato’s view in Politeia. In reality, John is preaching the maintenance of one’s wealth. He is saying that we no right to waste and misuse our own wealth because it is not really our own. Everything belongs to God. John says, “Therefore though he could have taken these possessions away from you, God left them so that you may have the opportunity to show forth virtue.” Once again, he helps us realize what our objective is. We have to use our earthly possessions in a manner fitting to the Scripture and God’s will. If John did not already prove his point, he makes this last state to those who chose to squander the things given to them by God: “He who lives for himself only and overlooks all others, is useless, he is not even a man, he does not belong to the human race.”
        I hope we learned a lot from today's lesson because there was a lot to learn. Marcus Tullius Cicero gave us a good inside look into what private property ought to mean for the Roman government: sovereignty means equity and harmony. The less extreme, Saint John Chrysostom preaches a message to make everyone aware that what we have is God’s, and that we should never abuse our power.

1) What does Cicero say is the main purpose of the Roman governments and primary responsibility of a state official?
2) Cicero says that “harmony” and “equity” will be destroyed with the distribution of property, but can these qualities of a society exist in our existing society?
3) Do you believe God is speaking figuratively or literally when he says, “the land is mine and you are… my tenants,” and “the world is mine,”? How does this affect the way you view property?
4) Do you see Chrysostom’s last statement as too harsh? What ways do you agree or disagree with what he said?
5) How do you think Greeks, Romans, and Judeo-Christians view giving?

임 바울
2. 키케로는 " 어떤 사회의 화합과 공평성"이 재산을 분배하게 되면 파괴될 것이라고 하였다. 그러나 기존의 사회에는 이런 가치관이 존재하지 않는가/

먼저 미국에 이런 가치관이 더욱 팽배해지고 있다. 그리고 이런 가치관이 점점 증가하면서 사회의 질서가 점점 무너지고, 계층간의 투쟁들이 벌어지고 있다. 국가 복지 정책이 현존하는 가치중에 하나일 것이다.

키케로는 사회의 화합과 공평성은 각 개인이 벌은 재산권이 철저하게 보호되어야 한다는 점이다. 내가 일을 하고 벌은 것은 나에게 속한 것이고, 어떤 사람도 침범을 해서는 안된다고 하였다. 심지어 국가가 위기를 맞이하는 상황이 아니라면, 각 개인이 갖고 있는 재산에 세금을 부가해서도 안된다고 하였다.

먼저, 민주주의 국가가 유지되기 위해서 정부는 각 개인의 재산과 계약관계를 보존해야 한다. 그리고 국가가 국민을 안전하게 유지하기 위해서 최소한의 세금을 부과하는 것은 정당하다. 그러나 국민의 복지를 위한다는 개념으로, 부자들에게 더 많은 세금을 징수하는 누진세는 불공평하다.

가난한 사람을 도와주는 것은 국가가 되어서는 안되고, 개인이 자발적으로 행해져야 한다. 국가가 이런 일을 할 때에 재산에 대한 헬라 철학이 개념, 즉 공산주의로 나아가게 되기 때문이다.

오늘날 민주당에는 사회 복지를 강조한 결과 공공연하게 사회주의를 주장하는 사람이 나타났을 뿐만 아니라, 또한 세력을 얻고 있다. 이런 과정들은 예측된 것이다.

거대한 정부가 되려고 할 때에 이런 현상이 일어난다. 물질에 대한 로마의 견해는 바로 이런 점을 염려한 결과라고 보아야 한다. 헬라 철학에서 나타난 단점들을 보았기 때문이다. 비록 다른 극단으로 나아가는 잘못을 범했지만, 그러나 거대한 정부에 대한 오늘날의 동향을 생각한다면, 그들에게서 배울점이 많다.


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번호 제목 작성자 작성일   추천 조회
48  Chapter Two - Part Five - Giving-Empowering or Enslaving?    Abraham Yim 2018/11/05 55 171
47   Chapter Two - Part Four - Giving-Empowering or Enslaving?    Abraham Yim 2018/10/28 59 149
46  Chapter Two - Part Three - Giving-Empowering or Enslaving?    Abraham Yim 2018/10/28 55 143
45  Chapter Two - Part Two - Giving-Empowering or Enslaving?    Abraham Yim 2018/10/28 57 149
44  Chapter Two - Part One - Giving-Empowering or Enslaving?    Abraham Yim 2018/10/28 62 156
43  Chapter One - Part Seven - Money - Medium of Exchange or Mammon?    Abraham Yim 2018/10/28 49 120
42  Chapter One - Part Six- Money - Medium of Exchange or Mammon?    Abraham Yim 2018/10/28 47 109
41  Chapter One - Part Five - Money - Medium of Exchange or Mammon?    Abraham Yim 2018/09/18 71 204
40    [re] Chapter One - Part Four - Money - Medium of Exchange or Mammon?    Abraham Yim 2018/10/28 48 117
 Chapter One - Part Three - Money-Medium of Exchange or Mammon?  [1]  Abraham Yim 2018/09/03 73 217
38  Chapter One - Part Two - Money-Medium of Exchange or Mammon?    Abraham Yim 2018/08/25 89 279
37  Chapter One - Part One - Money-Medium of Exchange or Mammon?  [1]  Abraham Yim 2018/08/07 103 307
36  Introduction - Doing Well and Doing Good  [1]  Abraham Yim 2018/08/07 81 241
35  Table of Contents & Purpose    Abraham Yim 2018/08/07 85 247
34  The Source of Full Assurance  [1]  Michelle Yim 2018/08/07 83 231
33  Gaining True Assurance    Michelle Yim 2018/08/07 84 254
32  False Assurance    Michelle Yim 2018/08/07 73 210
31  Four Types of People    Michelle Yim 2018/08/07 104 220
30  The Struggle for Assurance    Michelle Yim 2018/08/07 87 197
29  Regeneration is Permanent    Michelle Yim 2018/07/03 82 276

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