||2017-06-12 15:43:38, 조회 : 706, 추천 : 153
| Voting as a Christian|
Freedom of Speech
Chapter 6 (Part 2)
Last week we talked about the freedom of speech and how this unalienable right is vital to our society. We saw how freedom of speech is violated when restricting campaign contributions. A solution that Grudem suggests that these restrictions should be lifted. Donations of a large amount can be reported so that the public knows where the candidate is getting their influence. Today, we will discuss how the freedom of speech is violated on college campuses and on public platforms like a radio show.
In 2009, Augusta State University required a student named Jennifer Keaton to alter her religious beliefs on homosexuality and transgender people due to her talking about her religious beliefs on campus. Keaton was penalized and ended up filing a lawsuit to argue the Universities decision. Do you think this was right? In an article "Welcome to college-now be quiet" the writer states that these speech codes are actually having a negative effect on higher education. Megan McArdle writes, "A university education is supposed to accomplish two things: expose you to a wide variety of ideas and help you navigate through them; and turn you into an adult, which is to say, someone who can cope with people, and ideas, they don’t like. If the schools abdicate both functions, then the only remaining function of an education is the credential. But how much will the credential be worth when the education behind it no longer prepares you for the real world?” Should students be able to speak freely?
These speech codes attack religious, political and social views which is considered "hate speech". FIRE (Foundation of Individual Rights in Education) is a organization that help to put in speech codes into public universities. There are currently 253 public universities that have speech codes, which makes 97% of all public universities. On the other hand, there is an organization called ADF (The Alliance Defense Fund). ADF helps to fight against these speech codes by helping students that want to file lawsuits against the universities that infringe on their First Amendment right.
These speech codes directly attack Christian organizations by disallowing the freedom to express their views. These speech codes are known as "non-discrimination policies." However, these codes actually do the exact opposite. Some universities that have implemented these "non-discriminatory policies" are Rutgers University, Arizona State University, Ohio University and University of North Carolina. However, the biggest case that has been brought up to the Supreme Court was Christian Legal Society v. Martinez. The Christian Legal Society was denied official student organization status at Hastings College of Law in San Francisco. The college said that the Christian Legal Society were attacking people of opposite beliefs in homosexuality and transgender. This case favored Martinez by 5-4.
Another example against Christian groups is in the Supreme Court case of Rosenburger v. Rector. A Christian newspaper was denied equal access to student fees due to their Christian beliefs. The US Supreme Court ruled this as unconstitutional that by reducing the funding the university indirectly attacked the Christian newspaper freedom of speech. In this case and many others, the ADF and other Christian legal groups have helped to attack speech codes.
The idea of hate speech on college campus has become too broad. Nowadays, any form of religious, political or social views is seen as an affront to a group of people - any group of people. However, it is seen that the principle of freedom of speech does not protect how one might take the words of another person. In actuality, the freedom of speech is put into place to restrict direct, actual harm to an individual. For example, inciting a riot or fight, defamation and causing the death or injury of an individual. Unfortunately, many people go beyond this scope and wrongfully consider other forms of speech as "hate speech."
In 1949, the Federal Communication Commission (FCC)introduced the "Fairness Doctrine." This doctrine required that radio stations broadcasting controversial issues do so in a manner in which it is honest, equitable and balanced. In theory, this doctrine was supposed to allow for radio stations to give different views on political issues but the FCC abolished this doctrine in 1987 saying that there is no need for this doctrine since there is so many radio stations and broadcasting channels.
This Fairness Doctrine Act restricted the conservative voice on radio stations. Due to this doctrine and the nation being widely liberal, it only allowed liberal radio stations to grow its audience. This was because conservative radio stations were getting more listeners than liberal radio stations and by requiring conservative radio stations to implement liberal ideas; it allowed liberalism to grow. One example to show that liberal media were not as popular as their conservative counterparts are: Air America, Vanity Fair Magazine, The Al Franken Show and The Limbagh Show.
Christians should be concerned about their freedom of speech, whether it is at their college campuses or in a radio station. They should take all action to go against the government violation of their First Amendment right.
1) Megan McArdle writes, "A university education is supposed to accomplish two things: expose you to a wide variety of ideas and help you navigate through them; and turn you into an adult, which is to say, someone who can cope with people, and ideas, they don’t like. If the schools abdicate both functions, then the only remaining function of an education is the credential. But how much will the credential be worth when the education behind it no longer prepares you for the real world?” Do you agree with this? Why or why not?
2) What is FIRE and ADF? How do these two organizations affect our freedom of speech?
3) How do these speech codes directly affect Christians?
4) What is the "Fairness Doctrine Act"? Do you agree with this? Why or why not?
5) Have you ever felt like your First Amendment right has been violated? Please explain.